Category: Seminar Report



Smart Cards are plastic credit cards devices with an integrated circuit chip with microprocessor. These smarts cards have the mechanism for storing and/or processing information. Intelligent Tokens (iButton) are high capacity general-purpose electronic data carriers, each with a unique registration number. They have the same components as smart cards but are shielded by a steel case. This paper will show the differences between contact smart cards, contact less smart cards and intelligent tokens (iButton) with respect to RAM, ROM and EEPROM and other related aspects.

Download Full Seminar Report Here : LATEST SMART CARD FEATURES


        Lasers have  been  considered  for  space  communications  since  their  realization  in  1960.Specific advancements were needed  in component performance and system engineering particularly  for  space  qualified  hardware.  Advances  in  system  architecture,  data formatting  and  component  technology  over  the  past  three  decades  have  made  laser communications  in  space  not  only  viable  but  also  an  attractive  approach  into  inter satellite link applications.


     Information  transfer  is  driving  the  requirements  to higher  data  rates,  laser  cross  -link technology  explosions,  global  development  activity,  increased  hardware,  and  design maturity. Most  important  in space  laser communications has been  the development of a reliable, high power, single mode  laser diode as a directly modulable  laser source. This technology advance offers the space laser communication system designer the flexibility to  design  very  lightweight,  high  bandwidth,  low-cost  communication  payloads  for

satellites whose  launch  costs  are  a  very  strong  function  of  launch weigh.  This  feature substantially reduces blockage of fields of view of most desirable areas on satellites. The smaller antennas with diameter  typically  less  than 30 centimeters create less momentum disturbance  to  any sensitive  satellite  sensors. Fewer on board  consumables are  required over the long lifetime because there are fewer disturbances to the satellite compared with heavier and larger RF systems. The narrow beam divergence affords interference free and secure operation.


Download full seminar report :  LASER Communication

In  today’s information  age  it  is  not  difficult  to  collect  data  about  an individual and  use that  information to  exercise  control  over  the  individual.Individuals  generally do not want  others  to  have personal  information  about them  unless  they  decide  to  reveal  it.  With  the  rapid  development  of technology, it is more difficult to maintain the  levels of privacy citizens knew in the  past.  In  this  context,  data  security  has  become an  inevitable  feature. Conventional  methods  of  identification  based on  possession  of ID cards  or

exclusive  knowledge  like  social  security  number  or  a  password  are  not altogether  reliable.  ID  cards  can  be  almost  lost,  forged  or  misplaced: passwords can  be  forgotten. Biometric  technology has  now  become  a viable alternative  to  traditional  identification  systems  because  of  its  tremendous accuracy and speed. This paper explores the concept of Iris recognition which is  one  of  the  most  popular  biometric  techniques.  This  technology finds applications in diverse fields.


Download full seminar report : IRIS SCAN.pdf

    In the coming decade, we are said to confront the final frontiers of the mobile revolution. The 3G or the Third Generation mobile technology is expected to fulfil the idea of location and data independent communication. It is almost now clear that the packet switched (PS) technology will dominate the technological developments in the mobile sector. The packet switched technology would not only integrate the mobile infrastructure with the already existing Internet backbone, but also provide the facility of “always on“ connection. These two features are seen to be two great leaps forward in the direction of 3G. The Packet switched technology would not only enhance the existing data messaging services, but also provide alternate voice services through VOIP. The mobile vendors have planned long term strategies for 3G evolution. The most popular path is through GSM-GPRS-EDGE. This has allowed gradual transition, giving enough time for development, deployment and testing of better technologies.

The harnessing of electronics to measure odor is greatly to be desired. Human panels backed up by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are helpful in quantifying smells, but they time are consuming, expensive and seldom performed in real time in the field. So it is important that these traditional methods give way to a speedier procedure using and electronic nose composed of gas sensors. Electronic nose or E-noses are the systems that detect and identify odours and vapours, typically linking chemical sensing devices with signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques which enable uses to readily extract relevant and reliable information.

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The term electronic commerce refers to any financial transaction involving the electronic transmission of information. The packets of information being transmitted are commonly called electronic tokens. One should not confuse the token, which is a sequence of bits, with the physical media used to store and transmit the information.
        We will refer to the storage medium as a card since it commonly takes the form of a wallet-sized card made of plastic or cardboard. (Two obvious examples are credit cards and ATM cards.) However, the “card” could also be, e.g., a computer memory.

A particular kind of electronic commerce is that of electronic payment. An electronic payment protocol is a series of transactions, at the end of which a payment has been made, using a token issued by a third party. The most common example is that of credit cards when an electronic approval process is used. Note that our definition implies that neither payer nor payee issues the token

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Microsoft® Distributed COM (DCOM) extends the Component Object Model (COM) to support communication among objects on different computers—on a LAN, a WAN, or even the Internet. With DCOM, your application can be distributed at locations that make the most sense to your customer and to the application.

Because DCOM is a seamless evolution of COM, the world’s leading component technology, you can take advantage of your existing investment in COM-based applications, components, tools, and knowledge to move into the world of standards-based distributed computing. As you do so, DCOM handles low-level details of network protocols so you can focus on your real business: providing great solutions to your customers.

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DCOM Technical Overview.doc

DCOM Technical Overview.rar

biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (micro arrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed. Typically, a biochip’s surface area is not longer than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds.

 A genetic biochip is designed to “freeze” into place the structures of many short strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the basic chemical instruction that determines the characteristics of an organism. Effectively, it is used as a kind of “test tube” for real chemical samples.
 A specifically designed microscope can determine where the sample hybridized with DNA strands in the biochip. Biochips helped to dramatically increase the speed of the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, in the world wide research collaboration known as the Human Genome Project. The microchip is described as a sort of “word search” function that can quickly sequence DNA.
 In addition to genetic applications, the biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research. Biochips can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. Motorola, Hitachi, IBM, Texas Instruments have entered into the biochip business.
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Is your car or a vehicle stolen or is it not visible in the thickest snow or is one among the several cars present? Do you wa nt to know the arrival of the bus for which you are waiting? Are your children going alone in a vehicle and you want to track their moments? Does your cargo consists of costly load and want to protect them? Do you want to keep track of your little playing kids about where they are?

ANS: Automatic Vehicle Locator.

This Paper gives us a novel approach of using certain GPS technology in tracking not only vehicles, but even children and to protect precious goods. So this technology has gained a lot of importance in the recent years. This paper tells us how this technology works, its applications. It is still under research and development stage.

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Automatic Vehicle Locator.pdf
Automatic Vehicle Locator.rar

   ATM  does  not  stand  for  automatic  teller  machine. In the telecommunication,  it stands  for  Asynchronous  Transfer  Mode,  in   which  data  sends  asynchronously.  This  mode  is  another  fast packet  switching  mode.
       ATM  is  regarded  as  the  technology  of  the  21st  century  and  its impact  is  expected  to  be  similar  to  PCM  (pulse  code  modulation) which  is  used  widely  around  the  world  in  telecommunication.
                 Asynchronous  transfer  mode  (ATM)  is  a  technology  that  has  his  its  history  in  the  development  of  broadband  ISDN  in  the  1970s  and  980s.  Technically,  it  can  be  viewed  as  an  evolution  of  pocket switching.  Like  packet  switching  for  data , ATM integrates  the  multiplexing  and  switching  functions,  is  well  suited  for bursty  traffic  and  allows communications  between  devices  that  operate  at  different  speeds . Unlike  packet  switching , ATM  is  designed  for  high-performance multimedia  networking.
                   ATM  is  also  a  set  of  international  interface  and  signaling standards  defined  by  the  International  Telecommunication  Union- Telecommunications  (ITU-T)  Standards  Sector  (formerly  the  CCITT). The  ATM  forum  has  played  a  pivotal  role  in  the  ATM  market  since its  formulation  in  1991.

The  ATM  forum  is  an  international  voluntary  organization composed  of  vendors ,  service  providers,  research  organization,  and users.  Its  purpose  is  to  accelerate  the  use  of  ATM  products  and services  through  the  rapid  convergence  of  interoperability  specifications,  promotion  of  industry  cooperation ,  and  other  activities. Developing  multivendor  implementation  agreements  also  furthers  this goal.