Lasers have been considered for space communications since their realization in 1960.Specific advancements were needed in component performance and system engineering particularly for space qualified hardware. Advances in system architecture, data formatting and component technology over the past three decades have made laser communications in space not only viable but also an attractive approach into inter satellite link applications.
Information transfer is driving the requirements to higher data rates, laser cross -link technology explosions, global development activity, increased hardware, and design maturity. Most important in space laser communications has been the development of a reliable, high power, single mode laser diode as a directly modulable laser source. This technology advance offers the space laser communication system designer the flexibility to design very lightweight, high bandwidth, low-cost communication payloads for
satellites whose launch costs are a very strong function of launch weigh. This feature substantially reduces blockage of fields of view of most desirable areas on satellites. The smaller antennas with diameter typically less than 30 centimeters create less momentum disturbance to any sensitive satellite sensors. Fewer on board consumables are required over the long lifetime because there are fewer disturbances to the satellite compared with heavier and larger RF systems. The narrow beam divergence affords interference free and secure operation.
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In today’s information age it is not difficult to collect data about an individual and use that information to exercise control over the individual.Individuals generally do not want others to have personal information about them unless they decide to reveal it. With the rapid development of technology, it is more difficult to maintain the levels of privacy citizens knew in the past. In this context, data security has become an inevitable feature. Conventional methods of identification based on possession of ID cards or
exclusive knowledge like social security number or a password are not altogether reliable. ID cards can be almost lost, forged or misplaced: passwords can be forgotten. Biometric technology has now become a viable alternative to traditional identification systems because of its tremendous accuracy and speed. This paper explores the concept of Iris recognition which is one of the most popular biometric techniques. This technology finds applications in diverse fields.
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In the coming decade, we are said to confront the final frontiers of the mobile revolution. The 3G or the Third Generation mobile technology is expected to fulfil the idea of location and data independent communication. It is almost now clear that the packet switched (PS) technology will dominate the technological developments in the mobile sector. The packet switched technology would not only integrate the mobile infrastructure with the already existing Internet backbone, but also provide the facility of “always on“ connection. These two features are seen to be two great leaps forward in the direction of 3G. The Packet switched technology would not only enhance the existing data messaging services, but also provide alternate voice services through VOIP. The mobile vendors have planned long term strategies for 3G evolution. The most popular path is through GSM-GPRS-EDGE. This has allowed gradual transition, giving enough time for development, deployment and testing of better technologies.
The harnessing of electronics to measure odor is greatly to be desired. Human panels backed up by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry are helpful in quantifying smells, but they time are consuming, expensive and seldom performed in real time in the field. So it is important that these traditional methods give way to a speedier procedure using and electronic nose composed of gas sensors. Electronic nose or E-noses are the systems that detect and identify odours and vapours, typically linking chemical sensing devices with signal processing, pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques which enable uses to readily extract relevant and reliable information.
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The term electronic commerce refers to any financial transaction involving the electronic transmission of information. The packets of information being transmitted are commonly called electronic tokens. One should not confuse the token, which is a sequence of bits, with the physical media used to store and transmit the information.
We will refer to the storage medium as a card since it commonly takes the form of a wallet-sized card made of plastic or cardboard. (Two obvious examples are credit cards and ATM cards.) However, the “card” could also be, e.g., a computer memory.
A particular kind of electronic commerce is that of electronic payment. An electronic payment protocol is a series of transactions, at the end of which a payment has been made, using a token issued by a third party. The most common example is that of credit cards when an electronic approval process is used. Note that our definition implies that neither payer nor payee issues the token
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E-CASH PAYMENT SYSTEM.doc
E-CASH PAYMENT SYSTEM.rar
Microsoft® Distributed COM (DCOM) extends the Component Object Model (COM) to support communication among objects on different computers—on a LAN, a WAN, or even the Internet. With DCOM, your application can be distributed at locations that make the most sense to your customer and to the application.
Because DCOM is a seamless evolution of COM, the world’s leading component technology, you can take advantage of your existing investment in COM-based applications, components, tools, and knowledge to move into the world of standards-based distributed computing. As you do so, DCOM handles low-level details of network protocols so you can focus on your real business: providing great solutions to your customers.
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DCOM Technical Overview.doc
DCOM Technical Overview.rar
A biochip is a collection of miniaturized test sites (micro arrays) arranged on a solid substrate that permits many tests to be performed at the same time in order to get higher throughput and speed. Typically, a biochip’s surface area is not longer than a fingernail. Like a computer chip that can perform millions of mathematical operation in one second, a biochip can perform thousands of biological operations, such as decoding genes, in a few seconds.
A genetic biochip
is designed to “freeze” into place the structures of many short strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the basic chemical instruction that determines the characteristics of an organism. Effectively, it is used as a kind of “test tube” for real chemical samples.
A specifically designed microscope can determine where the sample hybridized with DNA strands in the biochip. Biochips helped to dramatically increase the speed of the identification of the estimated 80,000 genes in human DNA, in the world wide research collaboration known as the Human Genome Project. The microchip is described as a sort of “word search” function that can quickly sequence DNA.
In addition to genetic applications, the biochip is being used in toxicological, protein, and biochemical research. Biochips can also be used to rapidly detect chemical agents used in biological warfare so that defensive measures can be taken. Motorola, Hitachi, IBM, Texas Instruments have entered into the biochip business.
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Is your car or a vehicle stolen or is it not visible in the thickest snow or is one among the several cars present? Do you wa nt to know the arrival of the bus for which you are waiting? Are your children going alone in a vehicle and you want to track their moments? Does your cargo consists of costly load and want to protect them? Do you want to keep track of your little playing kids about where they are?
ANS: Automatic Vehicle Locator.
This Paper gives us a novel approach of using certain GPS technology in tracking not only vehicles, but even children and to protect precious goods. So this technology has gained a lot of importance in the recent years. This paper tells us how this technology works, its applications. It is still under research and development stage.
Automatic Vehicle Locator.pdf
Automatic Vehicle Locator.rar
does not stand for automatic teller machine. In the telecommunication, it stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode, in which data sends asynchronously. This mode is another fast packet switching mode.
is regarded as the technology of the 21st
century and its impact is expected to be similar to PCM (pulse code modulation)
which is used widely around the world in telecommunication.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM
) is a technology that has his its history in the development of broadband ISDN
in the 1970s and 980s. Technically, it can be viewed as an evolution of pocket switching. Like packet switching for data , ATM
integrates the multiplexing and switching functions, is well suited for bursty traffic and allows communications between devices that operate at different speeds . Unlike packet switching , ATM
is designed for high-performance multimedia networking.
is also a set of international interface and signaling standards defined by the International Telecommunication Union- Telecommunications (ITU-T
) Standards Sector (formerly the CCITT
). The ATM
forum has played a pivotal role in the ATM
market since its formulation in 1991.
The ATM forum is an international voluntary organization composed of vendors , service providers, research organization, and users. Its purpose is to accelerate the use of ATM products and services through the rapid convergence of interoperability specifications, promotion of industry cooperation , and other activities. Developing multivendor implementation agreements also furthers this goal.
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